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Home > Exhibit > Confederate Currency > Featured Confederate Currency > Criswell Type 8

Criswell Type 8 (123,564 issued)
Hoyer & Ludwig, Richmond, Virginia, printers

I chose this note because I am intrigued by George Washington standing center stage on a Confederate bill. While Washington's portrait appears on more paper money than any other individual in American history, I was surprised to find that he appears on no less than three Confederate notes.* As well, this engraving appears to be based on the famous Gilbert Stuart portrait that graces the US $1 bill.

As much as President Washington's appearance may spark a debate as to whether the North or the South had claim to Washington's legacy, my guess is that the man who couldn't tell a lie found his way onto Confederate script out of expediency rather than ideology. Hoyer & Ludwig were engaged by Confederate Secretary of the Treasury Memminger to produce a large quantity of paper money as quickly as possible. My guess is that they grabbed whatever engravings they had lying around.

The first six notes issued by the Confederacy were hand signed by the register and treasurer. After that, because of the sheer bulk of bills, clerks were hired to sign in their stead. Because of manpower shortages, most of the clerks were women, many the wives or daughters of soldiers who were killed in action.**

If you look at our September 2001 bill, Criswell #3, you will notice that it was signed by Confederate Treasurer E. C. Elmore, as well as the new register of the treasury, Robert Tyler, the son of U.S. President Tyler. This month's bill, Criswell #8, is one of the first to be signed by the over 200 clerks hired to sign "For" the Register and Treasurer. It was signed by R. Hill Jr. and L. J. Levin.***

The image on the left of the bill is the Roman earth goddess Tellus. She is representative of the all-embracing, all-fertile mother goddess, which dates from the very earliest times.

*Criwell, Confederate Paper Money 1996, p. 84
**Criwell, Confederate Paper Money 1996, p. 34
***Thian, Register of the Confederate Debt 1880, p. 7

Washington's Portrait

Roman Earth Goddess Tellus
Clerks signing "for" the Register and Treasurer

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